Physics Unit and  2nd semester Exam Review

 

Use complete sentences in all answers.

Define:

battery                          weight                          watts                         ionic            covalent        solubility

machine                        energy                         elastic force                acid            base                pH

frictional force               wet cell                        electrode          ionic compound   indicator        hydronium

electrolyte                     dry cell             gravitational force        covalent compound   weak        strong

effort distance               load distance                        effort force      concentrated   dilute        neutralization

load force                     control                          work                       salt            organic        hydrocarbon

power                          series                            dependent variable    saturated     unsaturated    alkane

parallel                         newton                         independent  “            alkene        alkyne            ester

joule                             mass                             inertia                        alcohol        organic acid    alkyl

slope                            load force                load distance                   biochemical carbohydrate  lipid

rise                               run                               work output               protein        alkyl halide (halogen derivative)

work input                    fulcrum             efficiency                               structural formula  isomer    isotope

actual mech. adv.      ideal mech. adv.            simple machines            radioactivity    radiation        mass number

speed                           rate                              acceleration                half-life          alpha decay   beta decay

rotational spring            potential energy            kinetic energy             fusion            fission            gamma decay

gravitational potential energy                                    Newton’s first law    medium    transverse wave    crest

Newton’s second law                                           Newton’s third law    amplitude    frequency     longitudinal wave

torque                         wavelength                    wave speed                reflection       refraction        diffraction

interference                pitch                               Doppler effect            decibel          echolocation    resonance

absorption                 scattering                         opaque                      pigment         transparent     electromagnetic spectrum

translucent                color subtraction               color addition            fluid                pascal           Archimedes' principle

buoyant force           density                              Bernouli's principle    drag               lift                 Pascal's principle

thrust                        fossil fuel                          renewable                 nonrenewable biomass        energy conversions

heat                          temperature                     Kelvin scale               conductor        insulator       specific heat

heat engine               thermal pollution               heat of fusion            convection        conduction    greenhouse effect       

 

  1. Draw and label a diagram of the battery that we made.
  2. Discuss different ways that our battery could be made stronger (have more energy).
  3. Explain how the battery we made could be recharged.
  4. How does a purchased battery compare to the one we made?
  5. Describe the energy transformations that take place when a battery is connected to a light bulb.
  6. How does the recharger work to give batteries energy?
  7. Which uses more energy the electric motor or the light bulb? Explain how you know this.
  8. Describe the energy transformations that take place when batteries are connected to a motor.
  9. How did Alessandro Volta and Sir Humphry Davy contribute to the development of batteries?
  10. The capacity of a battery depends upon what two variables?
  11. What is the relationship between recharging time and the energy stored in a battery?
  12. Using a line of best-fit graph for recharging time and stored energy, how does the graphed line appear?
  13. When using and analyzing experimental data, why is it best to use averages of a lot of data?
  14. How is the stretch of a rubber band and the elastic forces related?
  15. Explain 2 variables that affect the frictional forces on an object being pulled across a surface.
  16. Explain how frictional forces are measured.
  17. Explain 3 variables that affect the efficient operation of a motor connected to batteries.
  18. Calculate the work done in each of these problems:

A.    A girl moves a 50N box 10 m.

B.     A student rearranges his room, he must move a 190kg desk 4m for its new position. (kg is mass not weight)

  1. A crane’s motor can exert a maximum of 200N of force.  It needs to be used to move a shipping container that weighs 310N, 15m to the dock.  Determine how much work will be done.
  2. From #18 use the information to calculate power was exerted if:

A.    The girl moved the box in 10 seconds.

B.     The boy moved his desk in 30 seconds.

  1. Explain how adding more batteries in a series to a motor will affect the power of the motor if the load is kept constant.
  2. Explain how machines make work easier.
  3. Explain how frictional forces affect the work done to perform a task.  How do adding wheels help with this?
  4. Explain how an inclined plane can help us do work.
  5. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of collaborative science experimentation.
  6. What is the relationship between effort force and effort distance in pulley systems?
  7. What two ways can a pulley system make work easier?
  8. What two factors determine the class of the lever?
  9. Explain how the lever is a simple machine.
  10. Why is actual mechanical advantage always less than ideal mechanical advantage?
  11. Calculate the IMA of a machine if the effort force moves through a distance of .53m and the load only moves .1m.
  12. Calculate AMA if the load lifted is 5.8N and the effort required to move the load is 3N.
  13. Calculate the efficiency of a machine that lifts a 2.5N load 3m with an effort of 2N through a distance of 7m.
  14. Would you consider the above machine efficient?  If this is a closed system what happens to the rest of the energy that should have been generated?
  15. If a constant unbalanced force is applied to a car over a long period of time, what will happen to the motion of the car?
  16. Calculate the average speed of a car that travels a distance of 8m in 62sec.
  17. How does the mousetrap provide energy for the car?
  18. In terms of forces explain why the mousetrap car’s motion appeared as it did with the following accelerations (in m/s) .35, .93, 1.11, 1.14, 1.11, .78, .21, 0.
  19. If a roller coaster car weighing 4N is lifted 2m to begin its run and continues moving until it coasts to a complete stop at its original elevation, how much energy has it used?

40.  Why won’t a roller coaster car rise to its original height?

41. Why are orbiting objects said to be in free fall?

42. What is the gravitational constant (on Earth)?

43. What is the relationship between acceleration due to gravity and terminal velocity?

44. What two forces are working in projectile motion?

45. What is the relationship mass and inertia?

46. What two factors determine acceleration?

47. How is momentum conserved?

48. What is normal atmospheric pressure at sea level?

49. How does atmospheric pressure change with altitude?

50. How does water pressure change with depth?

 

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